Injection of biomolecules, genes and cells is commonly used in biological therapies. For example, intra-discal injection of biomolecules such as transforming growth factor-beta 1 has been used in the treatment of degenerative intervertebral discs (IVD). Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy for treating degenerative discs has received much attention.
Currently only 3 product classes available in the market. Among them, bisphonsphonate and SERMs are in the late growth phase of the product life cycle, while parathyroid hormones is in the infancy stage. All these drugs have severe side effects to the body.
IGF-1R is implicated in several cancers. Due to the similarity of the structures of IGF-1R and the insulin receptor (IR), especially in the regions of the ATP binding site and tyrosine kinase regions, synthesizing selective inhibitors of IGF-1R is difficult.